This page provides the general style sheet for all proceedings published by Cascadilla Proceedings Project. The deadline, submission address, and any other instructions specific to a particular proceedings are sent to you directly by the volume editor for your proceedings.
A note for LaTeX users
: If you are using LaTeX, Max Bane has kindly created a LaTeX class file
which should make it easier for you to follow this style sheet. If there are discrepancies between this style sheet and the LaTeX class file, this style sheet is authoritative.
: This is the most important item in making sure that there are no production problems.
For US letter paper (8.5" x 11"): left and right margins must be 1.38". Top and bottom margins must be 1".
For A4 paper (8.27" x 11.69"): left and right margins must be 1.24" (3.15 cm). Top margin must be 1" (2.54 cm), and bottom margin must be 1.69" (4.29 cm).
When you print your paper, use a ruler to check that the text block is 5.75 inches across (14.6 cm) on the printout. If the text block is 5.5 inches or 6 inches, you have done something wrong. Make sure you do not use page setup options or print options like "precision bitmap alignment" or "fit to page"—these will change the size of your text block.
No items on your page may project beyond these margins.
That includes tables, table borders, figures, text, and footnotes—you should be able to physically cut off the margins of your paper and not lose any printed material. It can be particularly difficult to have a table line up correctly with the left margin, so you may have to indent your tables a bit to make sure they don't stick out into the margin.
: There is no set page limit on many proceedings. Your paper should reflect the content of your conference talk, revised when appropriate. Do not add lots of extraneous material or pages of raw data. Because of the formatting for these proceedings, your paper might not fill up many pages. It is normal for a 20-minute conference talk to only need 6-8 pages.
Before the title
: At the top of the first page of your paper, before the title of your paper, you must include the following statement: "This is a printout of the final PDF file and has been approved by me, the author. Any mistakes in this printout will not be fixed by the publisher. Here is my signature and the date ___________________"
. This statement must be in 10-point Times or Times New Roman, must take 2 lines, and must be followed by a blank line before the title. This statement must be part of the main text block, not a separate header. Because it comes before the title, the statement will make your title start lower down on the first page. When you send in your printout to the volume editors, at least one author for your paper must carefully review the entire printout for any mistakes, and then sign and date that statement on the printout. If you don't review and sign the actual printout that we receive, we will not be able to publish your paper.
This statement must be included in the PDF file you create as well as on your printout. We will remove the statement from your paper before publication. You must not sign a printout that you have not reviewed carefully.
: The title of your paper must be 18-point bold
Times or Times New Roman. The title, author, and affiliation lines must be centered. Capitalize the first word and last word of the title and sub-title
, and then capitalize all words except determiners, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositions. Words cited as linguistic examples in the title or subtitle must be bold italic, and must be lowercase except when they are the first word in the title or subtitle. For hyphenated compounds, capitalize the first element; do not capitalize the second element if the first element is a prefix or if the second element is a determiner, conjunction, or preposition (cf. Non-spoken, Non-French, Morpho-syntax, Morphology-Syntax; see The Chicago Manual of Style 16, Rule 8.159 for further examples). Capitalize means making the first letter a capital letter. Do not put any words in your title in ALL CAPS (except for acronyms). Here are correct examples:
Seeing the Structure: How Children Describe Grammar in a Non-spoken Paradigm
When You Want to Use a Question Word, but Are Not Sure about why
Author and affiliation
After the title, skip a line, and put the author name(s) in 14-point bold
Times or Times New Roman, centered.
AuthorA, AuthorB, and AuthorC
Skip two lines before the start of your text.
Author affiliations and optional contact information should be put at the start of the acknowledgments footnote, not immediately after the author name(s). You can repeat the author names in the acknowledgments footnote, as in:
* AuthorA, Smith College, firstname.lastname@example.org. AuthorB, Brown University. Thank you to the audience at...
* AuthorA, Harvard University. AuthorB, MIT. AuthorC, Harvard University. For questions, contact Author B at email@example.com. Research funding provided by...
Do not use footnote numbers in the author line.
: The base font must be 10-point Times or Times New Roman throughout, for text, examples, diagrams, etc. References and footnotes must be 9-point.
Anything smaller than 9-point may not reproduce well in the printed proceedings and can be hard to read. When you format tables and figures, do not use font sizes that are too small to read comfortably. Either include the text at a readable size or leave that text out entirely.
If you are creating a figure in another program such as Excel and placing it in your paper, keep in mind that font sizes scale the same way that the entire figure scales. So if you use 10-point text in your figure and then place the figure in your document at 50% of the original size, your text will actually be 5-point (which is impossible to print properly).
When you generate the PDF file for your paper, make sure you embed ALL fonts. If you use a phonetic character font, you must embed that font or else most readers will see arbitrary letters or symbols instead of the characters you intended.
: Everything must be single-spaced, not double-spaced.
Optional: If you want your paper to look its best, you should set the line spacing for the body of your paper (which is in 10-point type) to "exactly 12 point" instead of "at least 12 point" or single spacing. Similarly, you should set the line spacing for your references and footnotes (which are in 9-point type) to "exactly 11 point". This will provide a readable line spacing which is very close to single spacing and will prevent the line spacing from looking uneven when you have font or style changes within a paragraph. If you do set exact line spacing, make sure that your title and author lines, as well as any figures or tables, are still set to single spacing so the title and author lines don't get too squeezed together and figures don't get cut off. If you don't want to take a few minutes to do this, then just use single spacing.
Indents and justification
1. Indent the first line of each paragraph 0.25 inch (0.64 cm).
2. Do not skip a line between paragraphs.
3. Text, footnotes, and references must be full justified
Before you submit your paper, check every one of these three points individually.
Most formatting mistakes we see are because people do not follow one of these three points. If you use a 0.5 inch indent, or skip lines between each paragraph, or leave text left justified, you will delay publication and create more work for yourself and others later.
: Examples should be in the same font and font size as the text of the paper. Skip one line before and after examples.
: Number all
of your section headings and subheadings (including the introduction), starting with 1. After the section number, use a period and a single space. Do not use tabs or multiple spaces after a section number.
Headings must be 12-point bold, and subheadings must be 11-point italic (not bold). Subheadings should all be formatted the same way, even if you have multiple levels such as 2.1. First experiment
, 2.1.1. Setup of first experiment
, etc. All headings and subheadings must be left-justified. Put one blank line before and after headings
, but do not put a blank line directly between a heading and a subheading.
Tables and figures
: Tables and figures must
be in their actual positions in the paper, not placed at the end or on separate pages. Do not use color in your tables and figures. Make sure that any text in your tables and figures is at a large enough font size to read easily.
Tables and figures should be crisp when viewed on screen and
when printed. If they are blurry when the text paragraphs are crisp, this indicates that they are pasted in at a low resolution. Images should be at least 300 dpi at their final size. Charts and graphs should be vector graphics whenever possible (pasted in place as EPS files, for example, if they were imported from a separate program) rather than bitmaps (such as JPG, GIF, PNG, or TIFF). If you cannot select a piece of text in a chart or graph the way that you can select text in a regular paragraph, it is a bitmap. While bitmaps are sometimes necessary, they make your file size larger and they cannot be searched.
: If you have any appendices, these must come after all material except the references. The references must
be the last item in the paper, not the appendices.
Any appendices must have a section heading just like a section of your paper. If you have more than one appendix, you can put them all in one section titled Appendices and use subheadings for each appendix, or you can put each one in a separate section and use a section heading for
each appendix. These section headings and subheadings must be left-justified, and formatted in the same way as the rest of your paper.
: Footnotes must be in 9-point type, rather than the 10-point used in the text. They must be single-spaced, and must be full justified. (As with regular text paragraphs, full justified means that each line of a paragraph except for the last line must extend to the right margin.) Endnotes are not an acceptable alternative to footnotes.
: You should include a first footnote containing a brief acknowledgement of any grant support, previous presentations of material at conferences or in print, and helpful comments from audiences or readers. This first acknowledgement footnote should be keyed with an asterisk (*) instead of a number. Put the * in the text at the end of the first section heading and make the color of the * in the text white so it won't print. The * at the start of the footnote itself must be visible. After this first acknowledgement footnote, your footnote numbering should start at 1.
: After your text and after any appendices, skip one line and type "References" (in 12-point bold
, left-justified). Then skip one more line and start the references. Do not skip lines between references.
The actual references must be in 9-point type, rather than the 10-point used in the text. References must be single-spaced, and must be full justified. (As with regular text paragraphs, full justified means that each line of a reference except for the last line must extend to the right margin.)
Each reference must use a hanging indent of 1/4 inch (0.63 cm.)—this means that the first line of each reference must start at the left margin, and each subsequent line of that reference must start 1/4 inch indented from the left margin. This is the opposite of a normal text paragraph, where only the first line is indented.
Do not use returns and tabs in the middle of a reference to create hanging indents. Instead, set the left margin or indentation for the references to 1/4 inch, and set the first line indentation to -1/4 inch.
You may use any common format (LSA, MLA, APA, etc.) for the references, as long as you use that format for all of your references. If your preferred format requires first initials instead of full first names, we require one change to that format: You must include full first names for all authors and editors in your references unless they published the original work using only initials.
For example, you must use "Chomsky, Noam" rather than "Chomsky, N."
: CAUTION: Do not allow a hyphen or dash at the end of a line when you are using it as a minus sign, as in [-high] or -0.25. You don't want the following common problem:
the vowels subject to this rule are [-
high]. So now let's look at...
If you see that happen in your paper, force a line break in the appropriate place:
the vowels subject to this rule are
[-high]. So now let's look at...
You should look for this problem as a final step by scanning down the right margin of every page.
: Do not put any page numbers on your paper. We will assign and add page numbers before publication. Do not refer to specific pages within your paper; instead, refer to section numbers or example numbers.
: If your word processor allows you to turn fractional widths on or off, turn fractional widths on. This will improve the appearance of your printed paper. The most noticeable effect is that bold-faced type will not have extra space after every letter.
: You should not use double spaces unless you are pushing words apart within an example. After colons and periods you should only use one space. If you are used to typing two spaces, the easiest thing to do is to wait until you are done preparing your paper, then do a "find and replace" to replace all double spaces with single spaces.
: Do not use any color in your paper.
Color in PDF files can look good, but color elements may not print well or may disappear completely when your paper is printed in black and white. Because we are publishing the same version of your paper both in print and online, anything in color will have to be converted to grayscale before your paper is published.
: Do not use PDF links in your paper for footnotes or web addresses (or anything else). You can refer to a URL, of course, but do not create a PDF link to that URL. All links will have to be removed before your paper is published.
Fancy PDF features
: You are responsible for proofreading your paper. Remember that it will be published as you give it to us. You cannot make changes later. At the proof approval stage, you can only fix problems which are not on the printout you submit.
Check that your PDF file is searchable
: After creating the PDF file of your paper, open the PDF file and use the Find command to look for a word in the title (bold) and a word in the text (not bold). If either of these does not work, then there is a font encoding problem in the PDF file and you must try a different way of creating the PDF file.
Print your paper
: Before submitting your PDF file, print out the entire PDF file. This is not the copy you will send in. Read through this printout to look for missing figures, missing fonts, and check the entire printout against each point on this style sheet.
Then use a ruler to draw a straight line down the left and right edges of your text block on each page. Use these hand-drawn lines to check that all paragraphs, footnotes, and references are the same width and are full justified, and that nothing is going beyond these lines into the margins.
Once you are sure there are no mistakes, you can discard this printout and send in your PDF file. The volume editors will then tell you if there are changes they need you to make.
After your PDF file is approved by the volume editors, you will need to make a new printout from your approved PDF file, check it carefully, sign the statement at the top of the first page saying that you approve the printout, and send it in. You must send in the entire printout that you have checked and approved, or we will not publish your paper.
Except for elements of this style sheet specifically listed as optional, the points on this style sheet are requirements. If you do not follow all of these requirements, you will delay publication of the entire volume and create more work for the volume editors and the publisher. If necessary to keep the volume on schedule, your paper may be removed from the volume.