This paper discusses the realization of direction-giving among six native speakers of Korean and 30 learners at three proficiency levels of Korean as a foreign language. The participants completed a computer-delivered map task designed to elicit direction-giving to addressees of varying social status and age. Data were analyzed for directness of head acts of direction-giving, external/internal modification, speech styles (polite, intimate), and honorifics. The results show that lower level learners rely on bare imperatives, accompanied by an unanalyzed honorific ending (-seyyo), whereas advanced learners show the use of bi-clausal imperatives and indirect direction-giving forms. Learners exhibited a U-shaped curve in honorific use. A striking difference between NSs and the learners was observed in the use of lexical mitigators: neither learner group produced hedged direction-giving. With increasing proficiency level, the learners used speech styles according to addressee status.
Selected Proceedings of the 2009 Second Language Research Forum: Diverse Contributions to SLA
edited by Luke Plonsky and Maren Schierloh
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