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Second-Language Development of Variable Future-Time Expression in Spanish
Aarnes Gudmestad and Kimberly Geeslin
63-75 (complete paper or proceedings contents)


This study examines the second-language (L2) development of variable future-time expression in Spanish. 151 L2 learners at five proficiency levels (N=151) and a group of NSs (N=22) completed a written-contextualized task (WCT), a language-proficiency test and a background questionnaire. The verb form selected (morphological future, periphrastic future or present indicative) for each item on the WCT was coded for three independent linguistic variables: presence of a lexical temporal indicator, temporal distance and (un)certainty. Cross-tabulations showed linear and nonlinear changes as proficiency level improved for all three verb forms. Additionally, multinomial logistic regression tests indicated that as L2 proficiency level increased, learners became more targetlike in the linguistic factors that conditioned future-time expression, but that the most advanced L2 group did not reach nativelike patterns of section in all linguistic contexts. This study constitutes the first research on Spanish to examine three verb forms of future-time expression in a single statistical model.

Published in

Selected Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics
edited by Ana M. Carvalho and Sara Beaudrie
Table of contents
Printed edition: $220.00