This paper proposes, contrary to most approaches to tough-movement (TM), that TM does not involve wh-movement. Rather, TM results from base generation of a doubling constituent structure that contains a null pronominal element and a co-referenced r-expression, and from the need for the r-expression to become licensed. Movement is accounted for via use of a stack mechanism that houses syntactic objects that contain unlicensed features. Syntactic objects in the stack are accessible to Agree relations with a probe, and a copy of a syntactic object remains in the stack until it becomes fully licensed. This analysis predicts a variety of perplexing TM facts, most notably, intervention effects that occur in certain constructions that contain both wh-movement and TM.
Proceedings of the 31st West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics
edited by Robert E. Santana-LaBarge
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