Additive focus markers convey meanings translated by too and also in English. This paper investigates the syntax of additive focus in the Bantu language Kinande. Two ways of forming additive focus in Kinande are noted: (1) one way involves a lexical item na 'and/with' that immediately precedes the nominal that is in additive focus (henceforth: the associate of the additive focus marker); (2) another way involves the same additive focus marker, this time following its associate. In this case, the post-associate additive focus marker agrees in phi-features with its associate. A subject/object asymmetry is evident in the distribution of these two manners of additive focus such that the prenominal additive focus marker has no restrictions on its distribution. By contrast, the postnominal agreeing additive focus marker can only have as its associate a nominal that occurs in a non-thematic position: therefore, there are severe restrictions on when it can have an object as its associate. In short, the additive focus marker has a distribution with respect to its associate that is similar to that reported for quantifier float in a number of languages. This study also sheds light on the internal structure of verb phrases that have multiple arguments.
Selected Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference on African Linguistics
edited by Ruth Kramer, Elizabeth C. Zsiga, and One Tlale Boyer
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