The anaphoric inventory in Narrow Bantu usually includes both a reciprocal marker (RCM) that is an extension and a reflexive marker (RFM) that is a prefix. Both are usually thought to be in complementary distribution with the object marker (OM) when representing the same thematic argument. The OM agrees with its antecedent or with an overt direct object (in the languages where this is possible), but RFM and RCM are invariant, regardless of the features of the antecedent. In Lubukusu, however, we will show that overt direct object anaphoric argument anaphors can co-occur with anaphoric markers on the verb as 'combination anaphors', even though an OM and an overt direct object are normally in complementary distribution. We establish that both RCM and RFM of Lubukusu occur in transitive constructions and that RFM and RCM are (associated with) distinct heads in clausal architecture. As a result of that distinction, a surprising contrast between these heads emerges when comitative structures are considered. We then return to the combination anaphora construction, which, when it occurs in comitative structures, suggests that the derivational analysis of the comitative construction we propose to account for the RFM/RCM contrast is on the right track.
Selected Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference on African Linguistics: Linguistic Interfaces in African Languages
edited by Ọ
la Orie and Karen W. Sanders
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